Земли Арктической зоны, организация их использования и мониторинга
Аннотация. Рассмотрена проблема баланса при использовании земель Арктической зоны между их промышленным освоением, традиционным природопользованием, которым занимаются проживающие здесь коренные малочисленные народы и их общины и сохранением уникальных экосистем. Анализируются отдельные результаты мониторинга этих земель и оценены (негативно) условия для их землеустройства.
Ключевые слова: добыча полезных ископаемых, земельные ресурсы, землеустройство, коренные народы, мониторинг земель, экосистемы, indigenous peoples, land resources, land use planning, mining industry ecosystems, monitoring of land
Arctic lands: arrangements for their use and monitoring
Summary. The arrangements of land use in the Arctic zone has differs from the rest of the country. This area is underpopulated, but here 80% of Russian gas is produced. There are also promising deposits of oil, gold and other minerals. The extraction and subsequent transportation of such minerals cause land damage and destroy other natural resources. It has to be especially mentioned that Arctic zone are more vulnerable to negative anthropogenic impacts than the central and southern territories. Indigenous minorities and their communities also live here. They are engaged by conventional nature use (grazing of reindeer, fishing, and hunting). The article considers the problem of balance between 1) industrial development of these lands 2) and their conventional use of nature by the indigenous peoples; and 3) preservation of the unique ecosystems of North. For this purpose abstract-logical, comparative-geographical, geoinformation and statistical methods are applied. The concept of the Arctic zone and its borders had discussed. The monitoring of lands and land use planning has been investigated. These two mechanisms help to achieve balance between all the components mentioned above. In 2015 the procedure of the monitoring implementation generally was improved in the country. However, for the territories of the Arctic zone, such monitoring is still very confined (in separate points). The analysis of results of monitoring of the disturbed lands in one of areas of the Chukotka Autonomous area (in Chaunsky) showed that negative dynamics prevails (the condition of 18% of the examined lands is getting worse). In last 10 years the land use planning is in decline (it is expressed in the absence of actual activities and in questions of its legal support). Improvement of relevant legislation is the first step to restore land use planning.